乌尔西努论天国权柄与世俗权柄之区别

五、天国钥匙的权柄与世俗权柄的区别在何处?

区别之处有很多,也十分明显。

  1. 教会惩戒是由教会执行;而世俗权柄则有法官或执政官执行。

  2. 在国家政府中,判决是依据国家法律执行;而在教会中,则是依据神圣律法或上帝的道执行。

  3. 天国钥匙的权柄交给教会是基于上帝的道,教会通过道来执行其权柄,向不肯悔改者宣告上帝的忿怒;单单以上帝的道惩罚顽固刚硬之人,这样,惩罚是落在良心上;而世俗权柄则佩戴刀剑,单单以现世惩罚迫使违法者服从其权柄。

  4. 教会有不同的警告步骤,如果犯罪者认识到自己的罪并悔改,则不继续对其惩罚;但即便悔改,执政者也必会惩罚违法者。

  5. 教会执行惩戒的目的是希望犯罪者回转得救;执政者是为了公义并维持公共和平。

  6. 教会执行惩戒只针对拒不悔改和不顺服的人,因此,当犯罪者显出足够的悔改证据时,惩戒就必须停止,撤销惩罚。而执政者一旦宣布审判就不再撤回,也不撤销惩罚。与基督同钉十架的强盗在十字架上悔改,或在临近死亡一刻悔改,便被基督接到乐园去了;但执政者却继续执行对他宣判的惩罚。因此,基督教惩戒往往留意到是国家政府所不留意到事情,当教会把那些拒不悔改者逐出团契相交,拒绝承认他们是其中一员时,执政者却容忍他们;反之,被国家政府放逐的人,可能在教会却被接纳。例如,执政者会对犯奸淫罪者,强盗,小偷等犯罪者执行死刑,然而如果他们真的悔改,教会是会接纳他们的。因此,教会权柄和世俗权柄的区别是清晰明显的。

——乌尔西努(Ursinus), 《海德堡要理问答注释》,主日31,第450页。


英文原文:

Ursinus, Commentary on Heidelberg Catechism, LD 31, p.450

  1. IN WHAT DOES THE POWER OF THE KEYS OF THE KINGDOM OF HEAVEN DIFFER FROM CIVIL POWER?

The points of difference are many, and such as are apparent.

  1. Ecclesiastical discipline is exercised by the church; civil power by the judge or magistrate.
  2. In the state, judgment is passed according to civil and positive laws; in the church, according to the divine law or word of God.
  3. The power of the keys committed to the church depends upon the word of God, and the church exercises her power by the word, denouncing the wrath of God upon the impenitent; punishes the obstinate with the word of God alone, yet in such a way that this punishment takes hold even upon the conscience: civil power employs the sword, and compels the refractory to submit to its authority by temporal punishment alone.
  4. The church has different steps of admonition, and if the offender is brought to acknowledge his sin and repents of it, it does not proceed to execute punishment in his case; the magistrate punishes the offender even though he repent.
  5. The church in the exercise of discipline, looks to the reformation and salvation of the offender; the magistrate to the execution of justice and the public peace. Will der Deib nicht zu unserm Herr Gott fahren, so fahre er zum Bösen.
  6. As the church exercises discipline in the case of none except the obstinate and disobedient, so it is bound to reverse its decision, and to remove the punishment, whenever there is sufficient evidence of repentance on the part of the offender. The magistrate when he has once inflicted punishment neither reverses the decision, nor removes the punishment. The thief that repents upon the cross, or in the hour of death, is received by Christ into Paradise; the magistrate proceeds to the execution of the punishment to which he is sentenced, amid sends him into exile. So Christian discipline often takes cognizance of things which the state does not notice, as when the church casts out of her communion those who do not repent, and refuses to recognize them as her members, while the magistrate, nevertheless, tolerates them; and so, on the contrary, the state may banish those whom the church receives. The magistrate may, for instance, inflict capital punishment upon adulterers, robbers, thieves, etc., and yet the church may receive them, if they give proper evidence of true repentance. The difference, therefore, between ecclesiastical and civil power, is clear and apparent.

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